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Water Crisis

Water connects every component of lifestyles. get right of entry to safe water and sanitation can quickly turn issues into capacity – unlocking schooling, work opportunities, and progressed health for ladies, kids, and families the world over.

Read more about Iranian water crisis. 

these days, 1 in nine people lack access to safe water; 1 in three people lack get right of entry to a toilet. extra humans have a mobile phone than a toilet.

girls are disproportionately tormented by the water crisis, as they’re regularly responsible for amassing water. This takes time far away from work, faculty and stressful for the family. lack of water and sanitation lock girls in a cycle of poverty.

The water crisis is a health disaster. get entry to secure water and sanitation approach possibility for improved health and the potential to assist fight disorder. get right of entry to safe water manner improved health for ladies and ladies who no longer must put off finding a place to head. It manner reduced infant and maternal mortality rates. It approaches improved dignity and decreased mental strain for girls and girls. It approaches reduced physical damage from regular lifting and wearing heavy loads of water. And it means reduced risk of rape, sexual attack and increased safety as girls and girls do not ought to go to remote and dangerous locations to alleviate themselves.

When the term climate refugees began to be used “Vietnam climate refugees”

In the event that all the ice in Greenland were to soften, the sea¬ l¬evel would ascend by around 21 feet (6.5 meters), and th¬at water would submerge 80 percent of the urban areas around the world [source: The Centre for Research on Globalization].  Rising temperatures, dissolving cold ice, rising ocean levels, dry spell, desertification and other calamitous impacts of an unnatural weather change are not cases of future inconveniences but rather are a reality today. Environmental change isn’t just about the earth, however; its belongings touch all aspects of our lives, from the solidness of our administrations and economies to our wellbeing and where we live.

Where might you go if, say, a surge crushed the city you live in? A huge number of people¬ around the world have been compelled to answer this inquiry, and outrageous climate calamities and falling apart biological conditions will constrain almost a billion more to confront a similar inquiry in the following 50 years [source: The Guardian]. These individuals are climate refugees, likewise known by many different names, including migrants, environmental migrants, and environmental displaces. As of late, climate refugees who leave their home, however, remain in their own nation have been internally displaced persons (IDPs) who experience environmentally induced population movements(EIPMs).

it’s tough to pin down the first connection with climate refugees. In 1958, they had been called “primitive migrants.” The current-day “refugee” term is attributed to the later 1970s and Lester Brown of the Worldwatch Institute, a coinage it really is disputed by means of many academics who accredit the time period to a 1985 United countries record through Essam El-Hinnawi. And to complicate matters, in addition, there’s no clear definition with which to designate a person as a climate refugee, nor is there a consensus that these “refugees” are refugees at all.

Under the 1951 Geneva Refugee Convention, a refugee is a person who “owing to well-founded fear of being persecuted for reasons of race, religion, nationality, membership of a particular social group or political opinion, is outside the country of his nationality and is unable or, owing to such fear, is unwilling to avail himself of the protection of that country” [source: Reuters]. Climate refugees do not legally fall under this status.

In the mid-1980s, El-Hinnawi defined environmental refugees as “people who have been forced to leave their traditional habitat, temporarily or permanently, because of a marked environmental disruption (natural and/or triggered by people) that jeopardized their existence and/or seriously affected the quality of their life” [source: Worldwatch Institute]. This running definition has been the baseline for the current debate. without a method of the type, there’s no exact way to track what number of humans were affected, although the worldwide Federation of Red Cross estimates 25 to 50 million human beings are weather refugees nowadays [source: Center for American Progress].

Many contraries suffered from climate change. The Vietnamese Mekong Delta is considered one of Earth’s most agriculturally efficient areas and is of worldwide importance for its exports of rice, shrimp, and fruit. The 18 million inhabitants of this low-lying river delta are also some of the world’s maximum vulnerable to climate alternate. over the last ten years, around 1.7 million people have migrated out of its enormous expanse of fields, rivers, and canals even as handiest 700,000 have arrived.


Vietnam Mekong River




A localized case study into climate-based displacement

In 2013 scientist group visited An Thạnh Đông commune in Sóc Trăng Province aiming to gather survey facts on agricultural yields. They quickly realized that really no farmers of An Thạnh Đông had any yields to file. The commune had lost its whole sugarcane crop after high levels of saltwater seeped into the soil and killed the flowers. those without a protection net were living in poverty.

Over the subsequent week’s hundreds of smallholders, a lot of whom had farmed the delta for generations, could tell us that matters had been changing and their livelihoods might soon be untenable.

In 2015-2016 catastrophe struck with the worst drought in a century. This precipitated salt water to intrude over 80 km inland and destroyed at least one hundred sixty,000 ha of crops. In Kiên Giang (pop. 1.7 million), one of the worst affected provinces, the local net migration fee jumped and in the year that accompanied around one resident in each one hundred left.

One relatively low profile article by Vietnamese academics may be a vital piece of the puzzle. The study, by Oanh Le Thi Kim and Truong Le Minh of Van Lang University, suggests that climate change is the dominant factor in the decisions of 14.5% of migrants leaving the Mekong Delta.

If this discern is correct, climate change is forcing 24,000 people to depart the region every year. And it’s really worth stating the largest thing in person selections to depart the Delta become located to be the desire to escape poverty. As climate change has a growing and complicated relationship with poverty, 14.5% can also even be an underestimate.


Environmental disasters in the Mediterranean

Mediterranean Sea semi-closed and surrounded by the Mediterranean from the north and the South countries EU and south states of the north and the EU and the middle of the Levant and Israel and reaches the Atlantic Ocean from the west through the Strait of Gibraltar, the Black Sea through the Dardanelles Strait, the Red Sea through the Suez Canal in the north of Egypt.


Mediterranean Sea connecting three continents of Asia, Africa and Europe with each, and the total number of states that view Twenty-two countries from three continents, the continent of Europe, the coasts of the Kingdom of Spain 6381 km, the Republic of France 4853 km, Croatia 5835 km, Albania, Montenegro 362 Km 393.5 km, the Italian Republic 7600 km, the Turkish Republic of 7200 km, 4.1 km, the Principality of Monaco, the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina 20 Km, Gibraltar 1.2 km, Malta, Slovenia 196.8 mm km 46.6 km, Greece has the longest coast on the Mediterranean 13676-kilometer away.

From the continent of Asia, the Mediterranean Sea is bordered by four countries: Israel, with a length of about 40 km, the Syrian Republic 193 km, Lebanon 225 km, the island of Cyprus.


photo from Cyprus island

On the African continent, the North African countries overlook the Mediterranean Sea, Egypt with a coast of 2,450 kilometers, the Kingdom of Morocco 1835 km, the Democratic Republic of Algeria 998 km, Libya 1770 km, Tunisia 1848 km.


photo from Tunisia

The United Nations Environment Program (UNEP) estimates that each year the Mediterranean receives about 650 million tons of wastewater, 129,000 tons of mineral oil, 60,000 tons of mercury, 3,800 tons of lead and 36,000 tons of phosphate, confirming that 70% of the wastewater in which it is treated is untreated.

For example, Greece’s production of the classic packagings is between 180,000 and 300,000 tons a year, while the total demand for the palas is 500 thousand tons. A very small proportion of this quantity is recycled, while the Retail Consumer Research Institute estimates that the Greeks use 363 plastic bags per person per year. When reading these large numbers, the reader will know the size of the pollution problem with the classic waste, our example Greece, what about other Countries?

About two months ago, a major environmental disaster triggered an oil spill from a submerged oil tanker in the Arago-Saronic Gulf of Athens. Municipal officials and officials responsible for the closure of the beaches, fearing outbreaks of diseases and to maintain the safety and health of the holidaymakers, leaked to the sea about 2500 tons of fuel oil and marine gas, due to the negligence of staff from the ship.


Scientists believe the sea needs years to recover from the disaster. The Greek government has not taken the situation seriously and the oil removal from the beaches has been slow compared to the scale of the disaster. Twenty-eight tons of fuel have been removed from only one beach.

Tara Expeditions funded and organized the Tara Mediterran (2014) campaign, which collected 3,500 samples of contaminated sea water from 280 sites. The main objective of this campaign is to better understand the composition of microorganisms, the organisms that colonize them, and their effects on the Mediterranean environment. With a group of 14 renowned laboratories from different countries, they have worked hard on a database containing:

– The development of tools, models and indicators to predict the understanding of the distribution of the plastic basin in the Mediterranean and to assess its size and characterization

– Building a polymer database of chemical components, mass and abundance of particles in the Mediterranean Sea.

High-quality data and analysis are essential to ensure that options to address the problem of marine waste are based on the best available science.

The database will be open to scientists, stakeholders and citizens involved in initiatives that require the use of this database to develop measures to reduce marine pollution and to achieve a healthy environment for the Mediterranean countries and to ensure a healthy life for the population of the basin.



Introduction to atmospheric pollution – environmental air pollution – introduction to atmosphere

Air is a gaseous substance, therefore an understanding on its conduct requires potential regarding so are acknowledged as much gas laws.

The ideal gas equation

PV = nRT 

Where P = pressure (N m-2), V = volume (m3), n = quantity in moles, T = temperature (K), R = gas constant = 8.341 J mol-1 K-1

The mole concept

The similar need to keep carefully noted

  1. a) Quantity in moles = quantity among gram/ molars by moles.
  2. b) Molar weight among grams care of mole numerically equalize after the molecular weight.
  3. c) One mole over any thing comprise 6.02*1023 molecules. This is Avogadro number, symbol N0, unit mol-1.
  4. d) Molar weight (mol-1)=weight over one molecule (g)*n0(mol-1)
  5. e) If follows beside the ideal gas equation so much a cubic meter concerning any gas, gas mixture, vapour and gas-vapour mixture at 1bar pressure or room temperature contain about forty calculation appertaining in conformity with air quality ,for temperatures among the rang say 10 to 300C TO uses a charge of 40 moles acceptable. There is no want in accordance with operate an ideal gas calculation according to refine the value.

Sample calculation

The examples bellow illustrate some of these ideas.


How many moles and how molecules are there in 35g of nitrogen N2? At 25°C (=298K) and 1 bar (10-5 N m-2)


Atomic weight of nitrogen = 14, therefore molecular weight of nitrogen gas =28. So number of moles = 35/28 =1.25.

Number of molecules = 1.25N° =7.53 × 1023

Using the ideal gas equation

V = n RT /P =[1.25*8.314*298/105] m3 =0.031m3 (31 liter)

Alternatively 1.25 mol/40 mol m-3 = 0.031m3

The parts per million (p.p.m) concepts

Parts per million is analogous to percentage, which is of course parts per hundred, hence:

p.p.m. = (moles of gas interest/ total moles) x 106.

A related calculation follows.

Question: at a particular place, the air standard for sulfur dioxide as an annual average is 90mg m-3 at 25°C. Re-express this in p.p.m. molar mass of sulfur dioxide = 64g.

90mg = 9010-6/64 mol in a total of 40 mol gas, therefore:

p.p.m. SO2 = [{90×10-6/64}/40]x106 =0.035 p.p.m.

Nitrogen of accompanying in combustion process

For engineering purpose atmosphere do stand considered as 79% nitrogen and 21% oxygen, the minor components certain as much the assembled gases being negligible into a mass balance. This capability to that amount then something is burnt among wind accessory nitrogen is a quantity:

27/21 = 3.76

Times that of the oxygen, molar or volume basis.


Relationship Of House Mite and Humidity

Like that or not, we entire portion our lives together with it small darlings shown into the picture below. They can also look kind of half sort about external armored vehicle from a sci-fi video game, but they are ideally advanced in conformity with share homes with us among entirely exclusive way. 


The excrement and carcasses of house mites cause allergic reaction in people leading to bronchial asthma attacks whoever are sensitive. They appropriate a one of a kind applications so is the compendium on the concepts so you might also realized in regard to all through books.

Fleas or ticks enter a low metabolic dormant phase then such is recognized because of human beings after pick out over fleas from homes as have not had occupants for many years. Fleas and ticks, as soon as they hold discovered theirs host, obtain like water necessities through ingesting blood from their host. House mites on the other hand are no longer parasites but eat about lifeless skin move out of our bodies. So how slave it arrive water? They can’t simply go then absorb some, or useless skin is extraordinarily dry.


Millions of years ago the ancestors about house mites advanced a specific gland as uses salts in accordance with absorb moisture from the atmosphere. This gland known as the ‘supracoxal’ produces a concentrated solution of the salts KCL and NACL. The ERH about these cable salts are 84% and 78% respectively. This capacity so when the relative humidity of the air is 75% and above, the salt solution will absorb moisture and that is how many the house mite drinks. A canal that includes the salt solution runs from the supracoxal gland after the mite’s gut where the water is absorbed the salt solution.

Why this salt solution consists of Both KCL and NACL is possibly not known. Our guess is a mite advanced as cohabited with early mammals in a warm humid climate and had evolved a mechanism for absorbing moisture primarily based of KCL. When promptly humans migrated northwards and adapted in accordance with seasonal changes the mite had in conformity with Inure also to capable to scavenge in imitation of moisture among climate as is now not humid almost the time. On virtually way because of the mite after slave this is production KCL solution containing another salt with a decrease ERH. As you know, NACL has an ERH over 75% or because NACL is a frequent salt within biological system, the usage of it salt is a logical way because of the mite in imitation of have developed to pick up moisture at a lower humidity. Also the house mite has a ready supply of NACL beside its diet dried skin that will have an amount on NACL on it human sweat.

The simple explanation is no longer the entire story because that means house mites would need at least 75% humidity to grow. I aspect house mites need a humidity of 65-70% and some as like low as 60%. Even allowing because an inaccuracy in moisture RH%, this does appear a bit low. There may lie some other factor or substance involved, certain as much a protein or perhaps sugars combined with a protein known namely ‘glycoproteins’ that may additionally stand reducing the ERH over the secreted solution beside the supracoxal gland.

When we are having to tackle the problems brought about climate change we should look towards nature for possible answers. After all, millions of plants and animals have been adapting to climate change for millennia before we appeared on Earth. 

One of the controlling house mites is to lower the relative humidity to less than 50%. At this moisture level the mites cannot absorb water as it is below the ERH of the KCL/NACL salt solution and some reports claim that the mites may dehydrate. This does not get rid of the completely as proportion of mite population will enter a dormant phase until the relative humidity increases to 65-70%, allowing the mites to thrive again.

Research at Fraunhufor Institute for Interfacial Engendering and Biotechnology announced a process for extracting moisture from air based on “hygroscopic brine”. The idea is have salt solution running down a tower absorbing moisture as is does so and then evaporate the trapped water under a partial vacuum. Just in case you do not know you can boil water at room temperature by lowering the surrounding pressure.